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 Thursday, April 28, 2011

Today I spent hours trying to make one line of code work. Fortunately Miguel Castro was ultimately able to help me troubleshoot the issue thanks to his deep understanding of all things ASP.NET.

The line of code seems so simple:

var data = Roles.GetRolesForUser(“rocky”);

In this case Roles is the RoleProvider API from System.Web.Security, and the method returns a string array with the roles for the user.

This line of code works great in my aspx page. No problem at all.

But in the same web project it throws a NullReferenceException when called from a WCF service (in a svc).

No stack trace. No detail. No nothing. I Binged, and Googled, and created a whole new solution (figuring my first solution was somehow corrupted). But nothing helped.

To cut to the answer, this works in a WCF service:

var data = Roles.Provider.GetRolesForUser(“rocky”);

See the difference? Instead of relying on the static helper method on the Roles type, this code explicitly calls the method on the default provider instance.

(fwiw, I think this behavior is relatively new, because that code used to work. I just don’t remember how long ago it was that it worked – .NET 3 or 3.5 – so perhaps something broke in .NET 4?)

In any case, problem solved – thanks Miguel!!

WCF | Web
Thursday, April 28, 2011 5:46:57 PM (Central Standard Time, UTC-06:00)  #    Disclaimer  |  Comments [1]  | 
 Tuesday, March 22, 2011

Yesterday I set out to do “something simple” – to use Windows Server AppFabric to do basic health monitoring of a WCF service.

A few hours later, I was pulling my hair out and my brain was spinning.

The basic issue is that configuring and using AppFabric involves numerous moving parts, and that leads to a ton of complexity for something that is otherwise pretty simple. But there are a lot of moving parts:

  1. My app
  2. IIS
  3. ASP.NET
  4. WCF
  5. AppFabric configuration tool
  6. AppFabric Dashboard
  7. AppFabric event collection service
  8. SQL Server
  9. SQL Server Agent
  10. Machine.config
  11. Web.config
  12. Visual Studio
  13. NTFS security

To make matters worse, on my dev workstation I had SQL Express 2005, SQL Express 2008 R2, and SQL Server 2008.

What you are supposed to do is simply this:

  1. install your web site into IIS (create an IIS Application where the virtual root points to your web site directory)
  2. in IIS Manager go to the virtual root, and click the Configure link on the far right under the Manage WCF and WF Services label
  3. in the resulting dialog, click Monitoring on the left, then enable application monitoring
  4. call your service
  5. back in IIS Manager, double-click the AppFabric Dashboard option for your virtual root to see the dashboard, with the cute little counters showing that your services have been used

Of course that didn’t work.

In the end, I think it didn’t work because the AppFabric Event Collection Service (a Windows service that runs to collect event information) didn’t have NTFS security rights to read my application’s web.config file.

But that’s not the first thing I thought to check. No, the first thing I thought to check was whether data was getting into the AppFabric tables in SQL Server. It was not. So then (after a little googling with Bing), it sounded like the problem was that SQL Agent wasn’t running.

Of course it turns out that SQL Agent can’t run against SQL Express. But having three different versions of SQL Server installed was making this all very hard to troubleshoot. So I spent some quality time uninstalling SQL 2005 and 2008, and then installing SQL Server Developer 2008 R2 – so now I have a real up-to-date SQL Server instance where SQL Agent does work.

(again, I suspect that was all wasted time – but on the upside, I have a far less confusing SQL Server installation Smile )

All that work, and it didn’t help. Then it occurred to me that my configurations were probably out of sync. So I reconfigured AppFabric, and my app, and the web sites and virtual roots in IIS Manager – all to use the new 2008 R2 database. And things were out of sync, so this was necessary and good.

But that didn’t help either. Still no data was in the AppFabric database.

Finally, I found a page lurking deep in MSDN that contained good troubleshooting information. And in here were instructions on how to view the event log for the AppFabric event collection service – which couldn’t read my web.config file.

I thought I’d hit the jackpot, so I updated the NTFS permissions on my web folder so the collection service could read the directory.

Still nothing. So I went to bed, frustrated at the continual failure.

This morning I thought I’d try again. Still no joy. So I rebooted my machine, and then it worked.

So I suspect that the core issue was the NTFS file permissions for the collection service. But with all the other changes I made, some service didn’t re-read its configuration until the system was rebooted.

In the end, it only took me about 6 hours of work to get Windows Server AppFabric to monitor the health of my WCF service. Hopefully I’ll never have to go through that again…

Tuesday, March 22, 2011 9:13:40 AM (Central Standard Time, UTC-06:00)  #    Disclaimer  |  Comments [1]  | 
 Wednesday, November 04, 2009

Of course I’m referring to Windows Forms, which is about 8 years old. Even in dog years that’s not old. But in software years it is pretty old I’m afraid…

I’m writing this post because here and in other venues I’ve recently referred to Windows Forms as “legacy”, along with asmx and even possibly Web Forms. This has caused a certain amount of alarm, but I’m not here to apologize or mollify.

Technologies come and go. That’s just life in our industry. I was a DEC VAX guy for many years (I hear Ted Neward laughing now, he loves these stories), but I could see the end coming years before it faded away, so I switched to the woefully immature Windows platform (Windows 3.0 – what a step backward from the VAX!). I know many FoxPro people who transitioned, albeit painfully, to VB or other tools/languages. The same with Clipper/dBase/etc. Most PowerBuilder people transitioned to Java or .NET (though much to my surprise I recently learned that PowerBuilder still actually exists – like you can still buy it!!).

All through my career I’ve been lucky or observant enough to jump ship before any technology came down on my head. I switched to Windows before the VAX collapsed, and switched to .NET before VB6 collapsed, etc. And honestly I can’t think of a case where I didn’t feel like I was stepping back in time to use the “new technology” because it was so immature compared to the old stuff. But every single time it was worth the effort, because I avoided being trapped on a slowly fading platform/technology with my skills becoming less relevant every day.

But what is “legacy”? I once heard a consultant say “legacy is anything you’ve put in production”. Which might be good for a laugh, but isn’t terribly useful in any practical sense.

I think “legacy” refers to a technology or platform that is no longer an area of focus or investment by the creator/maintainer. In our world that mostly means Microsoft, and so the question is where is Microsoft focused, where are they spending their money and what are they enhancing?

The answers are pretty clear:

  • Azure
  • Silverlight
  • ASP.NET MVC
  • WPF (to a lesser degree)
  • ADO.NET EF
  • WCF

These are the areas where the research, development, marketing and general energy are all focused. Ask a Microsoft guy what’s cool or hot and you’ll hear about Azure or Silverlight, maybe ADO.NET EF or ASP.NET MVC and possibly WPF or WCF. But you won’t hear Windows Forms, Web Forms, asmx web services, Enterprise Services, Remoting, LINQ to SQL, DataSet/TableAdapter/DataTable or numerous other technologies.

Some of those other technologies aren’t legacy – they aren’t going away, they just aren’t sexy. Raw ADO.NET, for example. Nobody talks about that, but ADO.NET EF can’t exist without it, so it is safe. But in theory ADO.NET EF competes with the DataSet (poorly, but still) and so the DataSet is a strong candidate for the “legacy” label.

Silverlight and WPF both compete with Windows Forms. Poor Windows Forms is getting no love, no meaningful enhancements or new features. It is just there. At the same time, Silverlight gets a new release in less than 12 month cycles, and WPF gets all sorts of amazingly cool new features for Windows 7. You tell me whether Windows Forms is legacy. But whatever you decide, I’m surely spending zero cycles of my time on it.

asmx is obvious legacy too. Has been ever since WCF showed up, though WCF’s configuration issues have been a plague on its existence. I rather suspect .NET 4.0 will address those shortcomings though, making WCF as easy to use as asmx and driving the final nail in the asmx coffin.

Web Forms isn’t so clear to me. All the buzz is on ASP.NET MVC. That’s the technology all the cool kids are using, and it really is some nice technology – I like it as much as I’ll probably ever like a web technology. But if you look at .NET 4.0, Microsoft has done some really nice things in Web Forms. So while it isn’t getting the hype of MVC, it is still getting some very real love from the Microsoft development group that owns the technology. So I don’t think Web Forms is legacy now or in .NET 4.0, but beyond that it is hard to say. I strongly suspect the fate of Web Forms lies mostly in its user base and whether they fight for it, whether they make Microsoft believe it continues to be worth serious investment and improvement into the .NET 5.0 timeframe.

For my part, I can tell you that it is amazingly (impossibly?) time-consuming to be an expert on 7-9 different interface technologies (UI, service, workflow, etc). Sure CSLA .NET supports all of them, but there are increasing tensions between the stagnant technologies (most notably Windows Forms) and the vibrant technologies like Silverlight and WPF. It is no longer possible, for example, to create a collection object that works with all the interface technologies – you just can’t do it. And the time needed to deeply understand the different binding models and subtle differences grows with each release of .NET.

CSLA .NET 4.0 will absolutely still support all the interface technologies. But it would be foolish to cut off the future to protect the past – that way lies doom. So in CSLA .NET 4.0 you should expect to see support for Windows Forms still there, but probably moved into another namespace (Csla.Windows or something), while the main Csla namespace provides support for modern interface technologies like WPF, ASP.NET MVC, Silverlight, etc.

I am absolutely committed to providing a window of time where Windows Forms users can migrate their apps to WPF or Silverlight while still enjoying the value of CSLA .NET. And I really hope to make that reasonably smooth – ideally you’ll just have to change your base class types for your business objects when you switch the UI for the object from Windows Forms to XAML – though I suspect other minor tweaks may be necessary as well in some edge cases.

But let’s face it, at some point CSLA .NET does have to drop legacy technologies. I’m just one guy, and even with Magenic being such a great patron it isn’t realistic to support every technology ever invented for .NET :)  I don’t think the time to drop Windows Forms is in 4.0, because there are way too many people who need to migrate to WPF over the next 2-3 years.

On the other hand, if you and your organization aren’t developing a strategy to move off Windows Forms in the next few years I suspect you’ll eventually wake up one day and realize you are in a bad spot. One of those spots where you can’t hire anyone because no one else has done your technology for years, and nobody really remembers how it works (or at least won’t admit they do unless you offer them huge sums of money).

I don’t see this as bad. People who want stability shouldn’t be in computing. They should be in something like accounts receivable or accounts payable – parts of business that haven’t changed substantially for decades, or perhaps centuries.

Wednesday, November 04, 2009 9:20:16 PM (Central Standard Time, UTC-06:00)  #    Disclaimer  |  Comments [0]  | 
 Friday, October 31, 2008

PDC 2008 was a lot of fun - a big show, with lots of announcements, lots of sessions and some thought-provoking content. I thought I'd through out a few observations. Not really conclusions, as those take time and reflection, so just some observations.

Windows Azure, the operating system for the cloud, is intriguing. For a first run at this, the technology seems surprisingly complete and contains a pretty reasonable set of features. I can easily see how web sites, XML services and both data-centric and compute-centric processing could be built for this platform. For that matter, it looks like it would be perhaps a week's work to get my web site ported over to run completely in Azure.

The real question is whether that would even make sense, and that comes down to the value proposition. One big component of value is price. Like anyone else, I pay a certain amount to run my web site. Electricity, bandwidth, support time, hardware costs, software costs, etc. I've never really sorted out an exact cost, but it isn't real high on a per-month basis. And I could host on any number of .NET-friendly hosting services that have been around for years, and some of them are pretty inexpensive. So the question becomes whether Azure will be priced in such a way that it is attractive to me. If so, I'm excited about Azure!! If not, then I really don't care about Azure.

I suspect most attendees went through a similar thought process. If Microsoft prices Azure for "the enterprise" then 90% of the developers in the world simply don't care about Azure. But if Microsoft prices Azure for small to mid-size businesses, and for the very small players (like me) then 90% of the developers in the world should (I think) really be looking at this technology

Windows 7 looks good to me. After the Tuesday keynote I was ready to install it now. As time goes by the urgency has faded a bit - Vista has stabilized nicely over the past 6-8 months and I really like it now. Windows 7 has some nice-sounding new features though. Probably the single biggest one is reduced system resource requirements. If Microsoft can deliver on that part of the promise I'll be totally thrilled. Though I really do want multi-monitor RDP and the ability to manage, mount (and even boot from) vhd files directly from the host OS.

In talking to friends of mine that work at Microsoft, my level of confidence in W7 is quite high. A couple of them have been running it for some time now, and while it is clearly pre-beta, they have found it to be a very satisfying experience. When I get back from all my travels I do think I'll have to buy a spare HD for my laptop and give it a try myself.

The Oslo modeling tools are also interesting, though they are more future-looking. Realistically this idea of model-driven development will require a major shift in how our industry thinks about and approaches custom software development. Such a massive shift will take many years to occur, regardless of whether the technology is there to enable it. It is admirable that Microsoft is taking such a gamble - building a set of tools and technologies for something that might become acceptable to developers in the murky future. Their gamble will pay off if we collectively decide that the world of 3GL development really is at an end and that we need to move to higher levels of abstraction. Of course we could decide to stick with what has (and hasn't) worked for 30+ years, in which case modeling tools will go the way of CASE.

But even if some of the really forward-looking modeling ideas never become palatable, many of the things Microsoft is doing to support modeling are immediately useful. Enhancements to Windows Workflow are a prime example, as is the M language. I've hard a hard time getting excited about WF, because it has felt like a graphical way to do FORTRAN. But some of the enhancements to WF directly address my primary concerns, and I can see myself getting much more interested in WF in the relatively near future. And the ability of the M language to define other languages (create DSLs), where I can create my own output generator to create whatever I need - now that is really, really cool!

Once I get done with my book and all my fall travel, you can bet I'll be exploring the use of M to create a specialized language to simplify the creation of CSLA .NET business classes :)

There were numerous talks about .NET 4.0 and the future of C# and VB.

Probably the single biggest thing on the language front is that Microsoft has finally decided to sync VB and C# so they have feature parity. Enough of this back-and-forth with different features, the languages will now just move forward together. A few years ago I would have argued against this, because competition breeds innovation. But today I don't think it matters, because the innovation is coming from F#, Ruby, Python and various other languages and initiatives. Both VB and C# have such massive pre-existing code-bases (all the code we've written) that they can't move rapidly or explore radical ideas - while some of these other languages are more free to do just that.

The framework itself has all sorts of changes and improvements. I spent less time looking at this than at Azure and Oslo though, so I honestly just don't have a lot to say on it right now. I look at .NET 4.0 and Visual Studio 2010 as being more tactical - things I'll spend a lot of time on over the next few months anyway - so I didn't see so much need to spend my time on it during PDC.

Finally, there were announcements around Silverlight and WPF. If anyone doubts that XAML is the future of the UI on Windows and (to some degree) the web, now is the time to wake up and smell the coffee. I'm obviously convinced Silverlight is going to rapidly become the default technology for building business apps, with WPF and Ajax as fallback positions, and everything at the PDC simply reinforced this viewpoint.

The new Silverlight and WPF toolkits provide better parity between the two XAML dialects, and show how aggressively Microsoft is working to achieve true parity.

But more important is the Silverlight intersection with Azure and Live Mesh. The fact that I can build smart client apps that totally host in Azure or the Mesh is compelling, and puts Silverlight a notch above WPF in terms of being the desired start-point for app development. Yes, I really like WPF, but even if it can host in Azure it probably won't host in Mesh, and in neither case will it be as clean or seamless.

So while I fully appreciate that WPF is good for that small percentage of business apps that need access to DirectX or rich client-side resources, I still think most business apps will work just fine with access to the monitor/keyboard/mouse/memory/CPU provided by Silverlight.

A couple people asked why I think Silverlight is better than Ajax. To me this is drop-dead simple. I can write a class in C# or VB that runs on the client in Silverlight. I can write real smart client applications that run in the browser. And I can run that exact same code on the server too. So I can give the user a very interactive experience, and then re-run that same code on the server because I don't trust the client.

To do that in Ajax you'd either have to write your code twice (in C# and in Javascript), or you'd have to do tons of server calls to simulate the interactivity provided by Silverlight - and that obviously won't scale nearly the same as the more correct Silverlight solution.

To me it is a no-brainer - Ajax loses when it comes to building interactive business apps like order entry screens, customer maintenance screens, etc.

That's not to say Ajax has no home. The web and browser world is really good at displaying data, and Ajax makes data display more interesting that simple HTML. I strongly suspect that most "Silverlight" apps will make heavy use of HTML/Ajax for data display, but I just can't see why anyone would willingly choose to create data entry forms or other interactive parts of their app outside of Silverlight.

And that wraps up my on-the-flight-home summary of thoughts about PDC.

Next week I'm speaking at the Patterns and Practices Summit in Redmond, and then I'll be at Tech Ed EMEA in Barcelona. I'm doing a number of sessions at both events, but what's cool is that at each event I'm doing a talk specifically about CSLA .NET for Silverlight. And in December I'll be at VS Live in Dallas, where I'll also give a talk directly on using CSLA .NET.

Friday, October 31, 2008 7:10:16 PM (Central Standard Time, UTC-06:00)  #    Disclaimer  |  Comments [0]  | 
 Thursday, June 12, 2008

WCF is very cool, but configuring WCF can virtually derail a project. Even relatively simple-seeming configurations can take hours or days to get working. It is frustrating! And the most complex part is getting security working.

The Microsoft Patterns and Practices group recently released beta guidance for WCF security (http://www.codeplex.com/wcfsecurityguide), and it is probably the single best resource for information about configuring WCF security you'll find anywhere.

WCF
Thursday, June 12, 2008 9:30:48 AM (Central Standard Time, UTC-06:00)  #    Disclaimer  |  Comments [0]  | 
 Friday, September 28, 2007

CSLA .NET version 3.0 adds support for Microsoft .NET 3.0 features. This ~120 page ebook covers how to use these new capabilities:

  • Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF)
    • Creating WPF forms using business objects
    • Using the new controls in the Csla.Wpf namespace
      • CslaDataProvider
      • Validator
      • Authorizer
      • ObjectStatus
      • IdentityConverter
    • Maximizing XAML and minimizing C#/VB code
  • Windows Communication Foundation (WCF)
    • Using the new WCF data portal channel to seamlessly upgrade from Remoting, Web services or Enterprise Services
    • Building WCF services using business objects
    • Applying WCF security to encrypt data on the wire
    • Sending username/password credentials to a WCF service
      • Including use of the new Csla.Security.PrincipalCache class
    • Using the DataContract attribute instead of the Serializable attribute
  • Windows Workflow Foundation (WF)
    • Creating activities using business objects
    • Invoking a workflow from a business object
    • Using the WorkflowManager class in the Csla.Workflow namespace

Version 3.0 is an additive update, meaning that you only need to use the .NET 3.0 features if you are using .NET 3.0. CSLA .NET 3.0 is useful for people using .NET 2.0!! These features include:

  • Enhancements to the validation subsystem
    • Friendly names for properties
    • Better null handling in the RegExMatch rule method
    • New StringMinLength rule method
    • Help for code generation through the DecoratedRuleArgs class
  • Data binding issues
    • Fixed numerous bugs in BusinessListBase to improve data binding behavior
    • Throw exception when edit levels get out of sync, making debugging easier
    • N-level undo changed to provide parity with Windows Forms data binding requirements
  • AutoCloneOnUpdate
    • Automatically clone objects when Save() is called, but only when data portal is local
  • Enhancements to the authorization subsystem
    • CanExecuteMethod() allows authorization for arbitrary methods

CSLA .NET 3.0 includes numerous bug fixes and some feature enhancements that benefit everyone. If you are using version 2.0 or 2.1, you should consider upgrading to 3.0 to gain these benefits, even if you aren't using .NET 3.0.

See the change logs for version 3.0, version 3.0.1 and version 3.0.2 for a more detailed list of changes.

Using CSLA .NET 3.0 is completely focused on how to use the new features in version 3.0. The book does not detail the internal changes to CSLA .NET itself, so all ~120 pages help you use the enhancements added since version 2.1.

Get the book at store.lhotka.net.
(C# available now, VB available in early October)

Download the 3.0.2 code from the CSLA .NET download page.

Books | CSLA .NET | WCF | Workflow | WPF
Friday, September 28, 2007 3:21:26 PM (Central Standard Time, UTC-06:00)  #    Disclaimer  |  Comments [0]  | 
 Thursday, August 09, 2007

I just spent the past few days pulling my hair out trying to get a custom principal to work in WCF.

Google returned all sorts of interesting, but often outdated and/or overly complex results. I kept looking at the techniques people were using, thinking this can't be so hard!!!

Well, it turns out that it isn't that hard, but it is terribly obscure... Fortunately I was able to get help from various people, including Clemens Vasters, Juval Lowy and (in this case most importantly) Christian Weyer. Even these noted WCF experts provided an array of options rather than a unified, simple answer like I'd expected.

My conclusion: while WCF really is cool as can be, it is also a deep plumbing technology that begs for abstraction for use by "normal" people.

Anyway, as a result of my queries, Christian got one of his colleagues to write the blog post I wish I had found a few days ago: www.leastprivilege.com - Custom Principals and WCF.

One of my motivations in researching this issue was for the WCF chapter in my upcoming Using CSLA .NET 3.0 ebook. There's now a comprehensive discussion of the topic in that chapter, starting with the creation and use of X.509 certificates and walking through the whole process of implementing custom authentication and using a custom principal in a WCF service. Dominick's blog post is great, but only covers about a third of the overall solution in the end.

The ebook should be out toward the end of September, for those who are wondering.

Thursday, August 09, 2007 2:28:24 PM (Central Standard Time, UTC-06:00)  #    Disclaimer  |  Comments [0]  | 
 Monday, June 11, 2007

I posted previously about an issue where the WCF NetDataContractSerializer was unable to serialize a SecurityException object. Microsoft provided some insight.

It turns out that the constructor of the SerializationException object doesn't set the Action property to anything valid. Before you can serialize a SerializationException with NDCS you must explicitly set the Action property to a valid SecurityAction.

This does mean that NDCS is not compatible with the BinaryFormatter in this case, but at least there's a workaround/solution.

I've now updated CSLA .NET 3.0 to explicitly set the Action property any time a SecurityException is thrown, thus allowing the WCF data portal channel to return valid details about the nature of any exception.

Monday, June 11, 2007 9:07:53 AM (Central Standard Time, UTC-06:00)  #    Disclaimer  |  Comments [0]  | 
 Friday, June 01, 2007

The WCF NetDataContractSerializer is an almost, but not quite perfect, replacement for the BinaryFormatter.

The NDCS is very important, because without it WCF could never be viewed as a logical upgrade path for either Remoting or Enterprise Services users. Both Remoting and Enterprise Services use the BinaryFormatter to serialize objects and data for movement across AppDomain, process or network boundaries.

Very clearly, since WCF is the upgrade path for these core technologies, it had to include a serialization technology that was functionally equivalent to the BinaryFormatter, and that is the NDCS. The NDCS is very cool, because it honors both the Serializable model and the DataContract model, and even allows you to mix them within a single object graph.

Unfortunately I have run into a serious issue, where the NDCS is not able to serialize the System.Security.SecurityException type, while the BinaryFormatter has no issue with it.

The issue shows up in CSLA in the data portal, because it is quite possible for the server to throw a SecurityException. You'd like to get that detail back on the client so you can tell the user why the server call failed, but instead you get a "connection unexpectedly closed" exception instead. The reason is that WCF itself blew up when trying to serialize the SecurityException to return it to the client. So rather than getting any meaningful result, the client gets this vague and nearly useless exception instead.

By the way, if you want to see the failure, just run this code:

    Dim buffer As New System.IO.MemoryStream
    Dim formatter As New System.Runtime.Serialization.NetDataContractSerializer
    Dim ex As New System.Security.SecurityException("a test")
    formatter.Serialize(buffer, ex)

And if you want to see it not fail run this code:

    Dim buffer As New System.IO.MemoryStream
    Dim formatter As New System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters.Binary.BinaryFormatter
    Dim ex As New System.Security.SecurityException("a test")
    formatter.Serialize(buffer, ex)

I've been doing a lot of work with the NDCS over the past several months. And this is the first time I've encountered a single case where NDCS didn't mirror the behavior of the BinaryFormatter - which is why I do think this is a WCF bug. Now just to get it acknowledged by someone at Microsoft so it can hopefully get fixed in the future...

The immediate issue I face is that I'm not entirely sure how to resolve this issue in the data portal. One (somewhat ugly) solution is to catch all exceptions (which I actually do anyway), and then scan the object graph that is about to be returned to the client to see if there's a SecurityException in the graph. If so perhaps I could manually invoke the BinaryFormatter and just return a byte array. The problem with that is in the case where the object graph is a mix of Serializable and DataContract objects - in which case the BinaryFormatter won't work because it doesn't understand DataContract...

In the end I may just have to leave it be, and people will need to be aware that they can never throw a SecurityException from the server...

Friday, June 01, 2007 11:34:14 AM (Central Standard Time, UTC-06:00)  #    Disclaimer  |  Comments [0]  | 
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