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 Tuesday, July 26, 2005
Here's an article that appears to provide a really good overview of the whole mobile agent/object concept. I've only skimmed through it, but the author appears to have a good grasp on the concepts and portrays them with some good diagrams.
Monday, July 25, 2005 11:16:49 PM (Central Standard Time, UTC-06:00)  #    Disclaimer
 Sunday, July 24, 2005

Mike has requested my thoughts on 3-tier and the web – a topic I avoided in my previous couple entries (1 and 2) because I don’t find it as interesting as a smart/intelligent client model. But he’s right, the web is widely used and a lot of poor people are stuck building business software in that environment, so here’s the extension of the previous couple entries into the web environment.


In my view the web server is an application server, pure and simple. Also, in the web world it is impractical to run the Business layer on the client because the client is a very limited environment. This is largely why the web is far less interesting.


To discuss things in the web world I break the “Presentation” layer into two parts – Presentation and UI. This new Presentation layer is purely responsible for display and input to/from the user – it is the stuff that runs on the browser terminal. The UI layer is responsible for all actual user interaction – navigation, etc. It is the stuff that runs on the web server: your aspx pages in .NET.


In web applications most people consciously (or unconsciously) duplicate most validation code into the Presentation layer so they can get it to run in the browser. Thus is expensive to create/maintain, but is an unfortunate evil required to have a half-way decent user experience in the web environment. You must still have that logic in your actual Business layer of course, because you can never trust the browser - it is too easily bypassed (Greasemonkey anyone?). This is just the way it is on the web, and will be until we get browsers that can run complete code solutions in .NET and/or Java (that's sarcasm btw).


On the server side, the web server IS an application server. It fills the exact same role of the mainframe or minicomputer over the past 30 years of computing. For "interactive" applications, it is preferable to run the UI layer, Business layer and Data Access layer all on the web server. This is the simplest (and thus cheapest) model, and provides the best performance[1]. It can also provide very good scalability because it is relatively trivial to create a web farm to scale out to many servers. By creating a web farm you also get very good fault tolerance at a low price-point. Using ISA as a reverse proxy above the web farm you can get good security.


In many organizations the reverse proxy idea isn’t acceptable (not being a security expert I can’t say why…) and so they have a policy saying that the web server is never allowed to interact directly with the database server – thus forcing the existence of an application server that at a minimum runs the Data Access layer. Typically this application server is behind a second firewall. While this security approach hurts performance (often by as much as 50%), it is relatively easily achieved with CSLA .NET or similar architecture/frameworks.


In other situations people prefer to put the Business layer and Data Access layer on the application server behind the second firewall. This means that the web server only runs the UI layer. Any business processing, validation, etc. must be deferred across the network to the application server. This has a much higher impact on performance (in a bad way).


However, this latter approach can have a positive scalability impact in certain applications. Specifically applications where there’s not much interactive content, but instead there’s a lot of read-only content. Most read-only content (by definition) has no business logic and can often be served directly from the UI layer. In such applications the IO load for the read-only content can be quite enough to keep the web server very busy. By offloading all business processing to an application server overall scalability may be improved.


Of course this only really works if the interactive (OLTP) portions of the application are quite limited in comparison to the read-only portions.


Also note that this latter approach suffers from the same drawbacks as the thin client model discussed in my previous post. The most notable problem is that you must come up with a way to do non-chatty communication between the UI layer and the Business layer, without compromising either layer. This is historically very difficult to pull off. What usually happens is that the “business objects” in the Business layer require code to externalize their state (data) into a tabular format such as a DataSet so the UI layer can easily use the data. Of course externalizing object state breaks encapsulation unless it is done with great care, so this is an area requiring extra attention. The typical end result are not objects in a real OO sense, but rather are “objects” comprised of a set of atomic, stateless methods. At this point you don’t have objects at all – you have an API.


In the case of CSLA .NET, I apply the mobile object model to this environment. I personally believe it makes things better since it gives you the flexibility to run some of your business logic on the web application server and some on the pure application server as appropriate. Since the Business layer is installed on both the web and application servers, your objects can run in either place as needed.


In short, to make a good web app it is almost required that you must compromise the integrity of your layers and duplication some business logic into the Presentation layer. It sucks, but its life in the wild world of the web. If you can put your UI, Business and Data Access layers on the web application server that’s best. If you can’t (typically due to security) then move only the Data Access layer and keep both UI and Business layers on the web application server. Finally, if you must put the Business layer on a separate application server I prefer to use a mobile object model for flexibility, but recognize that a pure API model on the application server will scale higher and is often required for applications with truly large numbers of concurrent users (like 2000+).



[1] As someone in a previous post indirectly noted, there’s a relationship between performance and scalability. Performance is the response time of the system for a user. Scalability is what happens to performance as the number of users and/or transactions is increased.

Sunday, July 24, 2005 8:47:26 AM (Central Standard Time, UTC-06:00)  #    Disclaimer
 Saturday, July 23, 2005

In my last post I talked about logical layers as compared to physical tiers. It may be the case that that post (and this one) are too obvious or basic. But I gotta say that I consistently am asked about these topics at conferences, user groups and via email. The reality is that none of this is all that obvious or clear to the vast majority of people in our industry. Even for those that truly grok the ideas, there’s far from universal agreement on how an application should be layered or how those layers should be deployed onto tiers.


In one comment on my previous post Magnus points out that my portrayal of the application server merely as a place for the Data Access layer flies in the face of Magnus’ understanding of n-tier models. Rather, Magnus (and many other people) is used to putting both the Business and Data Access layers on the application server, with only the Presentation layer on the client workstation (or presumably the web server in the case of a web application, though the comment didn’t make that clear).


The reality is that there are three primary models to consider in the smart/rich/intelligent client space. There are loose analogies in the web world as well, but personally I don’t find that nearly as interesting, so I’m going to focus on the intelligent client scenarios here.


Also one quick reminder – tiers should be avoided. This whole post assumes you’ve justified using a 3-tier model to obtain scalability or security as per my previous post. If you don’t need 3-tiers, don’t use them – and then you can safely ignore this whole entry :)


There’s the thick client model, where the Presentation and Business layers are on the client, and the Data Access is on the application server. Then there’s the thin client model where only the Presentation layer is on the client, with the Business and Data Access layers on the application server. Finally there’s the mobile object model, where the Presentation and Business layers are on the client, and the Business and Data Access layers are on the application server. (Yes, the Business layer is in two places) This last model is the one I discuss in my Expert VB.NET and C# Business Objects books and which is supported by my CSLA .NET framework.


The benefit to the thick client model is that we are able to provide the user with a highly interactive and responsive user experience, and we are able to fully exploit the resources of the client workstation (specifically memory and CPU). At the same time, having the Data Access layer on the application server gives us database connection pooling. This is a very high scaling solution, with a comparatively low cost, because we are able to exploit the strengths of the client, application and database servers very effectively. Moreover, the user experience is very good and development costs are relatively low (because we can use the highly productive Windows Forms technology).


The drawback to the thick client model is a loss of flexibility – specifically when it comes to process-oriented tasks. Most applications have large segments of OLTP (online transaction processing) functionality where a highly responsive and interactive user experience is of great value. However, most applications also have some important segments of process-oriented tasks that don’t require any user interaction. In most cases these tasks are best performed on the application server, or perhaps even directly in the database server itself. This is because process-oriented tasks tend to be very data intensive and non-interactive, so the closer we can do them to the database the better. In a thick client model there’s no natural home for process-oriented code near the database – the Business layer is way out on the client after all…


Another perceived drawback to the thick client is deployment. I dismiss this however, given .NET’s no-touch deployment options today, and ClickOnce coming in 2005. Additionally, any intelligent client application requires deployment of our code – the Presentation layer at least. Once you solve deployment of one layer you can deploy other layers as easily, so this whole deployment thing is a non-issue in my mind.


In short, the thick client model is really nice for interactive applications, but quite poor for process-oriented applications.


The benefit to the thin client model is that we have greater control over the environment into which the Business and Data Access layers are deployed. We can deploy them onto large servers, multiple servers, across disparate geographic locations, etc. Another benefit to this model is that it has a natural home for process-oriented code, since the Business layer is already on the application server and thus is close to the database.


Unfortunately history has shown that the thin client model is severely disadvantaged compared to the other two models. The first disadvantage is scalability in relationship to cost.  With either of the other two models as you add more users you intrinsically add more memory and CPU to your overall system, because you are leveraging the power of the client workstation. With a thin client model all the processing is on the servers, and so client workstations add virtually no value at all – their memory and CPU is wasted. Any scalability comes from adding larger or more numerous server hardware rather than by adding cheaper (and already present) client workstations.


The other key drawback to the thin client model is the user experience. Unless you are willing to make “chatty” calls from the thin Presentation layer to the Business layer across the network on a continual basis (which is obviously absurd), the user experience will not be interactive or responsive. By definition the Business layer is on a remote server, so the user’s input can’t be validated or processed without first sending it across the network. The end result is roughly equivalent to the mainframe user experiences users had with 3270 terminals, or the experience they get on the web in many cases. Really not what we should expect from an “intelligent” client…


Of course deployment remains a potential concern in this model, because the Presentation layer must still be deployed to the client. Again, I dismiss this as a main issue any longer due to no-touch deployment and ClickOnce.


In summary, the thin client model is really nice for process-oriented (non-interactive) applications, but is quite inferior for interactive applications.


This brings us to the mobile object model. You’ll note that neither the thick client nor thin client model is optimal, because almost all applications have some interactive and some non-interactive (process-oriented) functionality. Neither of the two “purist” models really addresses both requirements effectively. This is why I am such a fan of the mobile object (or mobile agent, or distributed OO) model, as it provides a compromise solution. I find this idea so compelling that it is the basis for my books.


The mobile object model literally has us deploy the Business layer to both the client and application server. Given no-touch deployment and/or ClickOnce this is quite practical to achieve in.NET (and in Java interestingly enough). Coupled with .NET’s ability to pass objects across the network by value (another ability shared with Java), all the heavy lifting to make this concept work is actually handled by .NET itself, leaving us to merely enjoy the benefits.


The end result is that the client has the Presentation and Business layers, meaning we get all the benefits of the thick client model. The user experience is responsive and highly interactive. Also we are able to exploit the power of the client workstation, offering optimal scalability at a low cost point.


But where this gets really exciting is the flexibility offered. Since the Business layer also runs on the application server, we have all the benefits of the thin client model. Any process-oriented tasks can be performed by objects running on the application server, meaning that all the power of the thin client model is at our disposal as well.


The drawback to the mobile object approach is complexity. Unless you have a framework to handle the details of moving an object to the client and application server as needed this model can be hard to implement. However, given a framework that supports the concept the mobile object approach is no more complex than either the thick or thin client models.


In summary, the mobile object model is great for both interactive and non-interactive applications. I consider it a “best of both worlds” model and CSLA .NET is specifically designed to make this model comparatively easy to implement in a business application.


At the risk of being a bit esoteric, consider the broader possibilities of a mobile object environment. Really a client application or an application server (Enterprise Services or IIS) are merely hosts for our objects. Hosts provide resources that our objects can use. The client “host” provides access to the user resource, while a typical application server “host” provides access to the database resource. In some applications you can easily envision other hosts such as a batch processing server that provides access to a high powered CPU resource or a large memory resource.


Given a true mobile object environment, objects would be free to move to a host that offers the resources an object requires at any point in time. This is very akin to grid computing. In the mobile object world objects maintain both data and behavior and merely move to physical locations in order to access resources. Raw data never moves across the network (except between the Data Access and Data Storage layers), because data without context (behavior) is meaningless.


Of course some very large systems have been built following both the thick client and thin client models. It would be foolish to say that either is fatally flawed. But it is my opinion that neither is optimal, and that a mobile object approach is the way to go.

Saturday, July 23, 2005 11:12:25 AM (Central Standard Time, UTC-06:00)  #    Disclaimer
 Thursday, July 21, 2005

I am often asked whether n-tier (where n>=3) is always the best way to go when building software.


Of course the answer is no. In fact, it is more likely that n-tier is not the way to go!


By the way, this isn’t the first time I’ve discussed this topic – you’ll find previous blog entries on this blog and an article at where I’ve covered much of the same material. Of course I also cover it rather a lot in my Expert VB.NET and C# Business Objects books.


Before proceeding further however, I need to get some terminology out of the way. There’s a huge difference between logical tiers and physical tiers. Personally I typically refer to logical tiers as layers and physical tiers as tiers to avoid confusion.


Logical layers are merely a way of organizing your code. Typical layers include Presentation, Business and Data – the same as the traditional 3-tier model. But when we’re talking about layers, we’re only talking about logical organization of code. In no way is it implied that these layers might run on different computers or in different processes on a single computer or even in a single process on a single computer. All we are doing is discussing a way of organizing a code into a set of layers defined by specific function.


Physical tiers however, are only about where the code runs. Specifically, tiers are places where layers are deployed and where layers run. In other words, tiers are the physical deployment of layers.


Why do we layer software? Primarily to gain the benefits of logical organization and grouping of like functionality. Translated to tangible outcomes, logical layers offer reuse, easier maintenance and shorter development cycles. In the final analysis, proper layering of software reduces the cost to develop and maintain an application. Layering is almost always a wonderful thing!


Why do we deploy layers onto multiple tiers? Primarily to obtain a balance between performance, scalability, fault tolerance and security. While there are various other reasons for tiers, these four are the most common. The funny thing is that it is almost impossible to get optimum levels of all four attributes – which is why it is always a trade-off between them.


Tiers imply process and/or network boundaries. A 1-tier model has all the layers running in a single memory space (process) on a single machine. A 2-tier model has some layers running in one memory space and other layers in a different memory space. At the very least these memory spaces exist in different processes on the same computer, but more often they are on different computers. Likewise, a 3-tier model has two boundaries. In general terms, an n-tier model has n-1 boundaries.


Crossing a boundary is expensive. It is on the order of 1000 times slower to make a call across a process boundary on the same machine than to make the same call within the same process. If the call is made across a network it is even slower. It is very obvious then, that the more boundaries you have the slower your application will run, because each boundary has a geometric impact on performance.


Worse, boundaries add raw complexity to software design, network infrastructure, manageability and overall maintainability of a system. In short, the more tiers in an application, the more complexity there is to deal with – which directly increases the cost to build and maintain the application.


This is why, in general terms tiers should be minimized. Tiers are not a good thing, they are a necessary evil required to obtain certain levels of scalability, fault tolerance or security.


As a good architect you should be dragged kicking and screaming into adding tiers to your system. But there really are good arguments and reasons for adding tiers, and it is important to accommodate them as appropriate.


The reality is that almost all systems today are at least 2-tier. Unless you are using an Access or dBase style database your Data layer is running on its own tier – typically inside of SQL Server, Oracle or DB2. So for the remainder of my discussion I’ll primarily focus on whether you should use a 2-tier or 3-tier model.


If you look at the CSLA .NET architecture from my Expert VB.NET and C# Business Objects books, you’ll immediately note that it has a construct called the DataPortal which is used to abstract the Data Access layer from the Presentation and Business layers. One key feature of the DataPortal is that it allows the Data Access layer to run in-process with the business layer, or in a separate process (or machine) all based on a configuration switch. It was specifically designed to allow an application to switch between a 2-tier or 3-tier model as a configuration option – with no changes required to the actual application code.


But even so, the question remains whether to configure an application for 2 or 3 tiers.


Ultimately this question can only be answered by doing a cost-benefit analysis for your particular environment. You need to weigh the additional complexity and cost of a 3-tier deployment against the benefits it might bring in terms of scalability, fault tolerance or security.


Scalability flows primarily from the ability to get database connection pooling. In CSLA .NET the Data Access layer is entirely responsible for all interaction with the database. This means it opens and closes all database connections. If the Data Access layer for all users is running on a single machine, then all database connections for all users can be pooled. (this does assume of course, that all users employ the same database connection string include the same database user id – that’s a prerequisite for connection pooling in the first place)


The scalability proposition is quite different for web and Windows presentation layers.


In a web presentation the Presentation and Business layers are already running on a shared server (or server farm). So if the Data Access layer also runs on the same machine database connection pooling is automatic. In other words, the web server is an implicit application server, so there’s really no need to have a separate application server just to get scalability in a web setting.


In a Windows presentation the Presentation and Business layers (at least with CSLA .NET) run on the client workstation, taking full advantage of the memory and CPU power available on those machines. If the Data Access layer is also deployed to the client workstations then there’s no real database connection pooling, since each workstation connects to the database directly. By employing an application server to run the Data Access layer all workstations offload that behavior to a central machine where database connection pooling is possible.


The big question with Windows applications is at what point to use an application server to gain scalability. Obviously there’s no objective answer, since it depends on the IO load of the application, pre-existing load on the database server and so forth. In other words it is very dependant on your particular environment and application. This is why the DataPortal concept is so powerful, because it allows you to deploy your application using a 2-tier model at first, and then switch to a 3-tier model later if needed.


There’s also the possibility that your Windows application will be deployed to a Terminal Services or Citrix server rather than to actual workstations. Obviously this approach totally eliminates the massive scalability benefits of utilizing the memory and CPU of each user’s workstation, but does have the upside of reducing deployment cost and complexity. I am not an expert on either server environment, but it is my understanding that each user session has its own database connection pool on the server, thus acting the same as if each user has their own separate workstation. If this is actually the case, then an application server would have benefit by providing database connection pooling. However, if I’m wrong and all user sessions share database connections across the entire Terminal Services or Citrix server then having an application server would offer no more scalability benefit here than it does in a web application (which is to say virtually none).


Fault tolerance is a bit more complex than scalability. Achieving real fault tolerance requires examination of all failure points that exist between the user and the database – and of course the database itself. And if you want to be complete, you just also consider the user to be a failure point, especially when dealing with workflow, process-oriented or service-oriented systems.


In most cases adding an application server to either a web or Windows environment doesn’t improve fault tolerance. Rather it merely makes it more expensive because you have to make the application server fault tolerant along with the database server, the intervening network infrastructure and any client hardware. In other words, fault tolerance is often less expensive in a 2-tier model than in a 3-tier model.


Security is also a complex topic. For many organizations however, security often comes down to protecting access to the database. From a software perspective this means restricting the code that interacts with the database and providing strict controls over the database connection strings or other database authentication mechanisms.


Security is a case where 3-tier can be beneficial. By putting the Data Access layer onto its own application server tier we isolate all code that interacts with the database onto a central machine (or server farm). More importantly, only that application server needs to have the database connection string or the authentication token needed to access the database server. No web server or Windows workstation needs the keys to the database, which can help improve the overall security of your application.


Of course we must always remember that switching from 2-tier to 3-tier decreases performance and increases complexity (cost). So any benefits from scalability or security must be sufficient to outweigh these costs. It all comes down to a cost-benefit analysis.


Thursday, July 21, 2005 3:51:17 PM (Central Standard Time, UTC-06:00)  #    Disclaimer
 Wednesday, July 20, 2005

Be sure to visit all the options under "Configuration" in the Admin Menu Bar above. There are 16 themes to choose from, and you can also create your own.


Wednesday, July 20, 2005 1:00:00 AM (Central Standard Time, UTC-06:00)  #    Disclaimer
 Tuesday, July 19, 2005

Magenic (my employer) bested five other finalists in this category, which recognizes partners that are developing and implementing innovative technical applications for clients using one or more Microsoft products. The company was chosen out of an international field of top Microsoft Partners for delivering market-leading customer solutions built on Microsoft technology. The awards were distributed at a ceremony July 9 in Minneapolis at the Microsoft Worldwide Partner Conference. Sandy White and Paul Fridman accepted the award on behalf of Magenic.

Awards were presented in a number of categories, with winners chosen from a pool of more than 1,800 entrants worldwide. Magenic was recognized for superior Technology Innovation in the Custom Development Solutions category. The Custom Development Solutions Award recognizes the year’s top partners in providing custom-developed solutions to customers that require value-added capabilities. Magenic won this award by developing solutions that optimize business opportunities for its customers through custom technology.

The Microsoft Partner Program Awards recognize Microsoft partners that have developed and delivered exceptional Microsoft-based solutions during the past year. With Microsoft’s recognition that Magenic’s applications are at the forefront of their industries, clients know that Magenic has proven commitment and expertise when delivering solutions based on Microsoft technologies. This recognition identifies Magenic as the most skilled partner in its custom application development areas.


Tuesday, July 19, 2005 8:00:34 AM (Central Standard Time, UTC-06:00)  #    Disclaimer
 Saturday, July 2, 2005

In a reply to a previous entry on the Mort persona, Dan B makes this comment:


I've written about this before, but I'll say it again - I think the dilemma VB faces is the dichotomy between being taken seriously as a modern OO language and the need to carry along the Morts. It's the challenge of balancing the need to distance itself from some of those VB6 carryovers with the need to keep those millions of high-school, hobbyist, etc. developers buying the product.


My previous post wasn't really about VB as such, but more about the "Mort" persona. That persona exists and isn't going anywhere. There are a whole lot of Morts out there, and more entering the industry all the time. Most developers are professional business developers and thus most developers fit the Mort persona. That's just fact.


Whether this large group of people chooses to congregate around VB, C#, Java, Powerbuilder or some other tool doesn't matter in the slightest.


What does matter from a vendor's perspective (such as Microsoft) is that this is the single largest developer demographic, and so it makes a hell of a lot of sense to have a tool that caters to the pragmatic and practical focus of the Mort persona.


If this is VB that's awesome and I am happy. But if enough Morts move to C#, then C# will be forced to accommodate the priorities and requirements of the Mort persona. Microsoft has proven time and time again that they are very good at listening to their user base, and so whatever tool attracts the overwhelming population of Morts will ultimately conform to their desires.


Don’t believe me? Why does C# 2005 have edit-and-continue? Because so many Morts went from VB to C# and they voted very loudly and publicly to get e&c put into their new adopted language. I know a great many Elvis/Einstein people who think the whole e&c thing was a waste of time and money – but they’ve already lost control. And this is just the beginning.


In other words, for those Elvis and Einstein personas who evangelize C# my words are cautionary. You are outnumbered 5 to 1, and if Mort comes a-calling you will almost instantly lose control of C# and you'll probably feel like you need a new home.


The irony is that you’ll have brought this doom on yourselves by telling the vast majority of developers that the only way to get your respect is to use semi-colons, when the reality is that the only way to get your respect is a fundamental change in worldview from pragmatic and practical to elegant and engineered - and frankly that's just not going to happen.


Most people are in this industry only partially because of technology. They are driven by the desire to solve business problems and to help their organizations be better and stronger. It is a small subset that are primarily driven by the love of technology.


If this ratio is changing at all, it is changing away from technology. Tools like Biztalk and concepts like software factories and domain-specific languages are all about abstracting the technology to further enable people who are primarily driven by the business issues and the passion to solve them.


But I don’t see this as hopeless. As one of my fellow RDs mentioned to me a few weeks ago, in Visual Studio 2005 C++ is finally a first-class .NET language. To paraphrase her view, Mort can have VB or C# or both, because the real geeks (the Elvis/Einstein types) can and will just go back to C++ and be happy. But the truly wise will geeks will use both where appropriate.

Saturday, July 2, 2005 11:09:31 AM (Central Standard Time, UTC-06:00)  #    Disclaimer
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